Little Bulldozer Infill Plane Maker Unkn

Little Bulldozer Infill Plane Maker Unkn

About as long as a No 2 size but sporting a 2 inch iron, this cute little smoother is craftsman made.

Little Bulldozer Infill Plane Maker Unkn

Little Bulldozer Infill Plane Maker Unkn

The maker of this little "bulldozer" looking tank is not known but clearly had great knowledge of plane making.

Little Bulldozer Infill Plane Maker Unkn

Little Bulldozer Infill Plane Maker Unkn

You can see on the right side, an early repair, probably a weak spot in the casting. It's been reinforced with brass and steel plates which have been screwed into the wood. Works pretty well.

Knowles Type Smoother Maker Unkn c1870s_

Knowles Type Smoother Maker Unkn c1870s_

Probably craftsman made, this apparent copy of a Hazard Knowles smoother is one of the heaviest 9 inch planes I've encountered. Very similar to the heft of a Scottish infill. A bit finicky to adjust, once there the plane performs admirably.

Knowles Type Smoother Maker Unkn c1870s_

Knowles Type Smoother Maker Unkn c1870s_

A great example of a Victorian design with a bound rope over iron tote. It appears that the rope has been oiled and is as tight as the day it was installed.

Knowles Type Smoother Maker Unkn c1870s_

Knowles Type Smoother Maker Unkn c1870s_

Beautiful designs and craftsmanship. It works very well, even after 150 years. It was a pleasure to work with.

Morris Patent 1870 Smoother

Morris Patent 1870 Smoother

Probably produced in the 1870s by the Sandusky Tool Company and later by the Ohio Tool Company. Morris is also known for a rare patented plow plane with a "scissor action" fence.

Morris Patent 1870 Smoother

Morris Patent 1870 Smoother

Note the floral designs on either side of the main casting. The simple wedge securing design is pretty flimsy.

Morris Patent 1870 Smoother

Morris Patent 1870 Smoother

Sandusky Tool Company was well known for its wood planes and this Morris Patent may have been their first foray into the iron plane business. Not much information is available about Morris or the plane and its production but evidence indicates that it was limited to the 1870s.

Morris Patent 1870 Smoother

Morris Patent 1870 Smoother

Morris' 1870 patent was for the diamond shaped bottom casting which was purported to be easier to machine flatten and cheaper to produce.

Hazard Knowles Patent c1827

Hazard Knowles Patent c1827

Hazard Knowles August 24, 1927 is the first known for an iron bottom in the United States.

Hazard Knowles Patent c1827

Hazard Knowles Patent c1827

The patent application states in part: "The stock is to be made of cast iron with the face and sides about one fourth of an inch in thickness...A round socket to be placed in the front end in which a handle is to be inserted which may be shoved by the left hand and a long socked in the other end for the insertion of a handle in the common form for jack planes and jointers and for the smooth plane a round socket at each end."

Hazard Knowles Patent c1827

Hazard Knowles Patent c1827

Once adjusted, this smoother, probably an original Knowles produced example, worked amazingly well, creating wispy fine gossamer shavings and leaving behind a glass like finish on the workpiece.

Loughborough's 1854 Pat Smoother

Loughborough's 1854 Pat Smoother

One of the earliest patents for an adjustable pitch plane. Turning the knobs fore and aft of the cutter changes the pitch and therefore the depth of cut. Loughborough's patent was issued on April 4, 1954. It's not known if Loughborough ever produce any of the planes himself. Perhaps the Civil War interrupted his operations but he later sold his patents the the Telford Brothers.

Loughborough's 1854 Pat Smoother

Loughborough's 1854 Pat Smoother

In his patent Loughborough states: "I avoid the necessity of a cap (iron) as a distinct and separate part by using the lower end of an adjustabler lever cap, as a cap (iron), when a double iron is required thereby producing two desirable results, with one device" According to Roger Smith in PTAMPIA Vol I, this is the earliest evdence indicating that the term was used in this reference and well before Leonard Bailey actually used his lever locking device in about 1858.

Loughborough's 1854 Pat Smoother

Loughborough's 1854 Pat Smoother

Loughborough's planes were produced by G.&J. Telford Manufacturers of Rochester, NY around 1866-1868.

Copy of L. Bailey patent split frame

Copy of L. Bailey patent split frame

An interesting copy of Leonard Bailey's split frame plane, patented in the 1850s. This one is unmarked and probably made in England in the 1870s.

Bailey split frame copy c1870s

Bailey split frame copy c1870s

The design mimics Bailey's but cast from bronze and iron, it's much heavier and less refined. Probably made by the craftsman who first used it.

Bailey split frame copy

Bailey split frame copy

An exploded view shows the components and their similarity to their Leonard Bailey patent split frame counterparts.

2nd Holly Patent Smooth Plane

2nd Holly Patent Smooth Plane

Simple design and excellent performance though the idea didn't catch on and production only lasted about 10 years. Holly is better known for his steam powered fire engine.

2nd Holly Patent Smooth Plane

2nd Holly Patent Smooth Plane

An interesting concept introduced by Holly to reduce friction. It appears that these holes were drilled into the casting post production.

2nd Holly Patent Smooth Plane

2nd Holly Patent Smooth Plane

A number of improvements were included in this design. A more simple but elegant tote, a support rod for the frog and a strap mechanism and screw down cap to hold and stablizethe iron.

Holly's 1852 patent smoothing plane

Holly's 1852 patent smoothing plane

Birdsill Holly of Seneca Falls, NY held over 150 patents, but only one for a plane. His design called for a wooden wedge to be used in various positions in conjunction with the iron and sleeve to change the pitch of the blade. This would in turn change the size and nature of the shaving. Higher pitch for deeper, heavier cuts and a shallow angle for thin wispy shavings.

Holly's patent smoother c1853

Holly's patent smoother c1853

Simple 3 piece design plus the hardware made this the first production plane known in the US. Silsby, Race & Holly produced planes for only about 10 years making these some of the rarest and earliest models.

Holly's 1852 patent smoother

Holly's 1852 patent smoother

Holly changed his design only once during the production of his planes from about 1853 until about 1863. The Civil War inturrupted his business and he apparently never returned to making planes, focusing instead on more lucrative endeavors like sewing machines and steam powered engines. He's also well know for his steam powered fire engines.

Scottish Infill Plane c1890-1900

Scottish Infill Plane c1890-1900

Known for heavy and stable planes, this smoother weighs in at over 3 pounds with a 2 inch cutting iron. The maker is not known but several of these designs have been noted on eBay and other internet tool sale sights.

Scottish Infill Plane c1890-1900

Scottish Infill Plane c1890-1900

Beautiful curvilinear shape and very comfortable to handle the furniture is hardwood, probably oak with a dark stain finish.

Scottish No 2 size Infil c1890-1900

Scottish No 2 size Infil c1890-1900

Easy to handle this one glides smoothly over the work piece. Fine depth adjusting can be accomplished by tightening the thumb screw on the cap.

Marshall Well Zenith Z604 1/2

Marshall Well Zenith Z604 1/2

Shaw's system moved the frog parallel to the sides and bottom making it unnecessary to readjust the depth of cut as was required on the Bedrock because of the ramped frog receiver. The two rear securing screws are loosened and the frog is adjusted by turning the center adjusting screw. A third screw, hidden under the frog, is "snug" tightened only to maintain alignment and provide stability. Note the amazing color and grain of the beautiful mahogany tote and knob.

Zenith Z604 1/2

Zenith Z604 1/2

In the early years of the 20th Century Marshall Wells Hardware, headquartered in Duluth, MN, contracted with Sargent to produce its top of the line Z600 series of planes with the unique Shaw's Patent frog adjusting system. An employee of Sargent, Shaw patented his 3 screw adjusting mechanism in 1906, some 5 years before Edmund Schade's Bedrock 3 screw frog. The Sargent Shaw's patent went into production around 1910 and the Marshall Well clone just a few years later.

The Millers Falls Company’s IMG_3138

The Millers Falls Company’s IMG_3138

The planes shown in these photos are early production models c1949. Later changes, cosmetic only, included a fully painted nose vs. the unfinished look and a more angularly designed tote horn. The planes were produced until about 1960.

Millers Falls 709 smooth & 714 jack

Millers Falls 709 smooth & 714 jack

The 709 and 714 were designed for general carpentry rather than fine woodworking. The mouth is too wide to allow for fine work and lacks an external adjustment screw, requiring some disassembly of the tote to set the frog. Performance is very good but with some limitations regarding fine detailed smoothing. Parts? Well, just don't break anything.

Millers Falls 709 smooth & 714 jack

Millers Falls 709 smooth & 714 jack

"The 709 and 714 planes were well-designed, quality products. The handles and knobs were fabricated from Tennessee Eastman tenite #2 and were guaranteed unbreakable in use. The planes’ frog assembly provided a seating surface three to four times longer than that of a standard plane, and the heavier weight of the tool gave them an advantage when handling irregular grain." (Randy Roeder; oldtoolheaven.com)

Great Performance and Great Looking

Great Performance and Great Looking

A beautiful design and great performance, even for a 120 year old tool. The patents for the various improvements of this plane were issued to Joseph Baldwin, Solon R. Rust, Arthur Rust, Henry Beach and William Tidgewell, all of the MMICo.

Meriden Maliable Iron Co smoother

Meriden Maliable Iron Co smoother

This example incorporates a number of innovative patents including the unique and highly precise depth of cut adjuster. Turning the knob rotates a threaded shaft that causes the frog plate to move up and down. A small inward facing screw attached to the clamping lever cap engages a slot machined in the frog plate, much like the lever cap engages the cap screw on Bailey pattern planes. The clamping cap holds the assembly tight against the frog face.

Meriden Maliable Iron Co Smoother

Meriden Maliable Iron Co Smoother

With a patented adjustable throat and unique depth adjusting mechanism, this plane also boasts a number of innovative patents including an 1873 patent to Jos Baldwin for a "metallic plane"; 1882 - Solon R. Rust; 1883 to Solon R and Arthur Rust; 1883 to Henry B. Beach for "improvements to metallic planes".

Meriden Maliable Iron Co smoother

Meriden Maliable Iron Co smoother

Incorporated in 1868, the Meriden Maliable Iron Co of Meriden, CT didn't begin manufacturing planes until 1883 and only produced limited quantities. Production ended in about 1888 and all manufacturing ceased in 1901. Sears Roebuck purchased the company in 1905 and retooled to produce rifles and handguns under the name Meriden Firearms Company.

Challenge Plane Goldsborough Patent

Challenge Plane Goldsborough Patent

The thin "U" shaped frame was easily broken under stress especially when used on hard or difficult wood. Many survivors have been broken and repaired. The plane was only produced for about 10 years and was not a financial success.

Challenge Plane Pat c1883-4

Challenge Plane Pat c1883-4

While it does in fact work, the plane seems unstable with significant chattering. There is no holding mechanism to secure the iron/cap iron to the frame. Upward force exerted on the depth adjusting nut stresses the weak point in the "U" frame causing it to ultimately fracture. The poor design destined this unique plane to an early demise.

Challenge Plane mfg by Tower & Lyon

Challenge Plane mfg by Tower & Lyon

This very simple design made the plane easy to adjust with minute movements of the depth adjusting screw. There is no lateral adjusting mechanism.

Challenge Plane c1889

Challenge Plane c1889

The patent holder, Arthur Goldsborough, seems to have had a difficult time finding a manufacturing company to produce his Challenge plane. The 1883/84 patent plane was not produced until Tower & Lyon began making them in 1889 and then only for about 10 years.

Marshall Wells Zenith Z605

Marshall Wells Zenith Z605

In about 1909 Marshall Wells contracted with Sargent to produce for them a version of the Shaw's patent plane. The Shaw's patent was similar to the Bedrock in that the frog could be adjusted simply by loosening 3 frog set screws, (1 front, 2 rear) and turning the rear center screw moving the frog fore and aft.

Marshall Wells Zenith Z605

Marshall Wells Zenith Z605

Sargent produced the Shaw's patent planes for Marshall Wells Hardware under the Zenith trademark. According to some experts the Shaw's patent design was superior to the Bedrock design in the way the cutter advanced with the frog eliminating the requirement to readjust the depth. Perhaps superior but not as commercially popular. Sargent quit producing the design in the early 1920s.

Rodier's Patent corrugations

Rodier's Patent corrugations

The sides of the plane are vertically 'corrugated' to add strength. But, the most striking feature of Rodier's planes are the sinuous corrugations cast into the sole.

Rodier's Patent Frog adjuster

Rodier's Patent Frog adjuster

Rodier's idea is to regulate the mouth and the set of the iron simultaneously and proportionately with a single adjustment of a spoked wheel adjuster that rocks the iron's bed about an axis near the throat; turning the wheel to the right reduces the iron's set by lowering the iron's pitch and consequently closes the throat, while turning the wheel to the left raises the iron's pitch to increase the iron's set and opens the throat.

Rodier's Patent smoother c1880

Rodier's Patent smoother c1880

Rodier received a patent for his plane on March 4th, 1879. They were only manufactured (by Laflin Manufacturing Co. of Westfield, Massachusetts) for a few short years, and judging from the surviving examples, they didn't sell well at all. The planes, like so many others' patents, couldn't match those made by Stanley, which was a flourishing tool juggernaut by the time Laflin Mfg. Co put Rodier's planes into full production during the early 1880's.

Ohio Tool  Co No 4 Marks Patent

Ohio Tool Co No 4 Marks Patent

In 1907 The Ohio Tool Company patented a Bedrock style frog adjusting mechanism just different enough not to infringe on Stanley's Bedrock patents. In this case the adjusting screw is attached to the frog and engages a boss cast into the body.

Ohio No O4 Marks Patent

Ohio No O4 Marks Patent

The fine adjusting allows precise movement of the frog and excellent performance.

Ohio No 4 Marks Patent Smoother

Ohio No 4 Marks Patent Smoother

Conceptually innovative but not commercially successful, the plane was only produced and sold for a few years and sales never really took off.

Capewell No 3 c1930s

Capewell No 3 c1930s

Likely produced by Peck and Stowe in the 1920s-30s, this low cost smoother has a pressed steel frog that's screwed to the main casting and a two piece pressed steel frog fork similar to those used by Millers Falls during the same time.

Windsor Design No 3 c2015

Windsor Design No 3 c2015

An attractive contemporary smoothing plane from India, not the highest quality nor best performing plane in the collection, it is an interesting study in design.

Shelton McAllers Pat c1935-1950s

Shelton McAllers Pat c1935-1950s

The Shelton Plane and Tool Manufacturing was a division of a company that had existed as a maker of picnic baskets under one name or another since 1865, and as the Shelton Basket Company since 1911. Cornelius McAller persuaded Abraham Lavietes, president of the basket company, to finance the manufacture of this plane. This version was the commonly encountered thumblever-on-a-long-screw type adjuster normally associated with Shelton. Stanley bought the company in 1955

Buckeye No 4C Muehls Pat c1905

Buckeye No 4C Muehls Pat c1905

Not wanting to be left out of the race, the Buckeye Saw and Vice company of Cleveland introduced another adjusting method combining horizontal and depth adjusting into a single lever. Precise but a bit finicky, the idea never really caught hold. The front hold down screw had a "nib" machined at the bottom which fit into a corresponding perforation on the iron. Both seem to have tended to wear out and break rendering the adjusting mechanism pretty useless.

Union X5

Union X5

Patented during a time when plane adjusting mechanism innovation seemed to be at a peak, most, as with the "X" designs were hoped to cut into Stanley's market share. None really did and most were produced for a few years and dropped. Precise but finicky, the adjuster worked well but the idea never really took off.

KeenKutter modified transitional

KeenKutter modified transitional

Craftsman ingenuity and innovation created this interestingly modified transitional plane. The bottom is plate steel secured to the frame with screws.

Modified KeenKutter transitional jack plane

Modified KeenKutter transitional jack plane

The plate steel bottom is about 1/8 inch making this No 5 size quite substantial and heavy. The shavings show that this is a well functioning plane.

KeenKutter modified transitional

KeenKutter modified transitional

The attaching screws are countersunk into the steel plate so as not to interfere with or damage the project piece.

KeenKutter by Stanley frog & bed

KeenKutter by Stanley frog & bed

During the 1920s Stanley contracted with Simmons Hardware to produce a bench plane under the trademark KeenKutter brand using the early Bedrock design. The only variant was the twisted lateral lever and of course the lever cap.

KeenKutter Group

KeenKutter Group

Planes produced by Stanley bore in the casting toe, a single "K" followed by the size number. Those produced by other manufacturers bore a double "KK" and didn't have a frog adjusting screw.

KeenKutter group

KeenKutter group

Simmons also contracted with other companies, including Ohio, to produce a KK line as well. Note the different wood (East India Mahogany) on the "KK"5 by Sargent vs the "K" models produced by Stanley (rosewood).

K3 c1920s

K3 c1920s

A nice example of a Stanley made K3 smoother c1920s. Stanley also produced a line for the Winchester Repeating Arms Co using the same early Bedrock frog design and twisted lateral.

Metallic Plane Co No 8 block plane

Metallic Plane Co No 8 block plane

The Metallic Plane Co also produced a fine line of block planes.This example of a No 8 c1870 sports the original Excelsior cutter and wood handle.

Metallic Plane Co No 8 block plane

Metallic Plane Co No 8 block plane

A simple ratcheting lever and corresponding grooves machined into the blade allow easy depth adjusting of the blade. This example with an Excelsior iron c1870

Metallic Plane Co Palmer's Pat c1867

Metallic Plane Co Palmer's Pat c1867

Metallic Plane company Jack and smoothing planes with Palmer's Patented adjusting system. While attractive looking, not a commercial success.

Metallic Plane Co Palmer's Pat c1867

Metallic Plane Co Palmer's Pat c1867

Palmer's Patent uses a very precise but complex 3-way adjusting system, somewhat difficult to master and a bit finicky.

Millers Falls No 209 c1937

Millers Falls No 209 c1937

The knob and handle of the 209 De Luxe were manufactured from a transparent red plastic that the company referred to as “indestructible.” Touted as an alternative to easily damaged wooden totes and knobs, the term “permaloid” was coined to reinforce this feature in the mind of the consumer. The permaloid components were made from cellulose acetate.

Millers Falls No 9 tp 2 c1936

Millers Falls No 9 tp 2 c1936

Type 2 and all later bench planes had the logo stamped onto the left side and 2 piece steel frog depth adjusting fork

Millers Falls No 9 tp 1 c1929-1936

Millers Falls No 9 tp 1 c1929-1936

Millers Falls was a name synonymous with tools manufacturing since 1868, 57 years prior to their decision to introduce introduce bench planes into their line amid the onset of the Depression. Innovative design, bright colors and new materials kept the business going through hard times and intense competition with Stanley and other tool makers. MF remained in business well into the late 20th Century after corporate changes and buyouts. The name is now owned by Hangzhou Great Star of China.

Millers Falls No 9 tp1 c1929-1936

Millers Falls No 9 tp1 c1929-1936

The most conspicuous differences in type 1 MF bench planes are the casting marks including the "MILLERS FALLS" cast around the knob and the size number and "MADE IN USA" cast behind the frog. These and other more subtle differences were later changed to make the plane more economical to produce.

Rockford R4

Rockford R4

Rockford planes were produced by the Marsh Tool Co as a "lower grade" model to the Marsh brand.

Rockford  Marsh

Rockford Marsh

Three examples of Marsh Tool Company products.

Marsh M4

Marsh M4

Headquartered in Rockford, IL, Marsh planes were high end and comparable to the Bailey plane produced by Stanley.

Jennings Steers Pat c1880

Jennings Steers Pat c1880

In about 1890 Jennings began producing a "Bailey" style bench plane with rosewood inlay bottom. Quite a complex, expensive and apparently unsuccessful venture.

Steers Patent No 305 Jack Plane

Steers Patent No 305 Jack Plane

"STEER'S PATENT ADJUSTABLE IRON PLANES With Composite Bottom. Our New Patented Iron Plane is offered to the trade and to the public as the only plane ever yet made that has successfully met the great objection to Iron Planes, viz. : the clinging of the Plane when in use to the work. The bottom of the Plane is inlaid with Rosewood strips firmly and immovably dovetailed into the iron, and so combined as to prevent the wood from wearing away, giving the ease in working of a wood plane."

Steers Patent 304

Steers Patent 304

Brattleboro Steers 304 smoother

Brattleboro Steers 304 smoother

Similar to the Bailey Defiance adjusting mechanism, the depth adjuster is exceptionally precise.

Steers Patent No 404

Steers Patent No 404

Jennings  Steers Patent 404

Jennings Steers Patent 404

Blade depth adjusting on the 400 series Jennings was achieved by turning the knob located on the rear of the frog.

Brattleboro/Jennings 404C

Brattleboro/Jennings 404C

A free moving rod was attached to an offset nib on the wheel. A corresponding nib on the other end of the rod fit into a machined hole on the blade. Turning the knob caused the rod to move up and down, likewise with the blade.

Birmingham Twins

Birmingham Twins

Derby/Birmingham Tool produced a series of unusual looking fully cast planes sizes from 5"-24" utilizing a patent developed by George Mosher in December 1884. These are examples of the 5" and 8".

Sandusky Semi-Steel 3SC

Sandusky Semi-Steel 3SC

In what appears to have been their final attempt at solvency, Sandusky applied for a patent of a fully metallic bench plane on October 14, 1925. Even prior to the granting of the patent, they began manufacturing both a wooden bodied plane with the metallic plane adjustment mechanism and three semi-steel bodied bench planes: the 3S, 13S and 19S. These could also be purchased with a corrugated sole (with corresponding numbers of 3SC, 13SC and 19SC.

I'm not an appraiser and I no longer provide estimates of value. So, if you have a plane you'd like to sell me please bring along a price with your offer. Thanks.

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