Bailey Vertical Post Restoration

Bailey Vertical Post Restoration

A nice complete example of a rare Leonard Bailey vertical post plane. I received this one minus the lever cap, iron and cap iron, and the tote and knob.

Bailey Vertical Post Restoration

Bailey Vertical Post Restoration

I was able to complete the restoration over the course of a couple of years and with some amazing luck in finding the missing and extremely rare parts.

Bailey Vertical Post Restoration

Bailey Vertical Post Restoration

Bailey's vertical post planes date from just after the Civil War until just before Bailey left for New Britain in about 1868

Bailey Vertical Post Restoration

Bailey Vertical Post Restoration

Bailey used the most available and high quality English made Moulson Brothers iron in most of his early planes. The irons are heavy, thick and tapered and work extremely well.

right side before

right side before

After restoration

After restoration

Still residual pitting and discoloration but it's a save of a very rare plane.

After restoration

After restoration

Difficult to determine age or period of production but Stanley started making them in 1911 and stopped in 1934. The logo on the brass clamping knob reflects the style of the "T" logo which Stanley used from about 1909-1912 making this a very early version.

Replacement blade works

Replacement blade works

Probably not a great performance but blame the operator. In the right hands these little scrapers can work amazingly well.

The violin maker's plane

The violin maker's plane

Bailey type 2 (c1869-1872) No 3 smoothing plane owned by violin maker DB Rockwell of Boston and Providence.

Classic design, excellent performance

Classic design, excellent performance

DB Rockwell, owner mark

DB Rockwell, owner mark

Stanley Two-Tone Smoothing Plane

Stanley Two-Tone Smoothing Plane

A later entry into Stanley's line of planes, the Two-Tone came in a Jack, Smoother and block plane size. They were first introduced in about 1939 for National Hardware Week and were in production until around the start of WWII. Cheaper, less expensive components made it competitive as a homeowner grade plane and priced accordingly.

Stanley Two-Tone Smoothing Plane

Stanley Two-Tone Smoothing Plane

After December 7, 1941, the planes were dropped from the production lines but were reintroduced in a slightly different configuration in about 1949, again for National Hardware Week. This time production ran just 2 years with final runs being produced in 1950. The bright colors apparently weren't enough to keep folks interested in yet another hand tool that would soon become obsolete as power tools took their place on the workbench.

L Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Pla

L Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Pla

One of Leonard Bailey's later iterations of his design, patented before he devolved a relationship with Stanley Rule and Level

L Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Plane

L Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Plane

LL Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Pl

LL Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Pl

Vertical Post patent date stamp

Vertical Post patent date stamp

The Bailey Boston Co. patent date for the depth adjusting mechanism.

LL Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Pl

LL Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Pl

Note the assembly marks on the lever cap. Each plane was unique and customized.

L Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Pla

L Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Pla

In my experience, this was one of the smoothest and most precise planes I have operated, even 150+ years after its production. A true pleasure to use.

Carriage Maker's Rabbet Planes

Carriage Maker's Rabbet Planes

Several examples of production models over a 60 year span

No 10 1/4 Rabbet Plane

No 10 1/4 Rabbet Plane

This plane is identical to the #10, except that it has a tilting tote and knob. This idea was first patented by a guy who added tilting wood to regular #10's because he found that your knuckles got all smashed when planing large rabbets. The tote and knob each sit atop a rounded casting that holds a coarsely knurled metallic cylinder. The usual securing rods for the tote and knob are screwed into these knurled cylinders. (Patrick Leach; "Patrick's Blood and Gore"; The Superior Works)

S Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 14 with unusual lever adjuster

S Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 14 with unusual lever adjuster

Seldon Bailey, owner of the Bailey Tool Company of Woosocket R.I. (no relation to Leonard) was a manufacturer of various items including washing machine ringers and hand planes. Leonard Bailey was employed there for a period after leaving the employ of Stanley, to oversee the production of his Victor and Defiance planes. After years of litigation brought against him by Stanley for patent infringement the Bailey Tool Company quit making planes and focused on washing machine ringers.

Defiance No 14 Bailey Tool Co c1878

Defiance No 14 Bailey Tool Co c1878

This example is very similar to the other one found at the beginning of this gallery. Principally, the cap iron screw fits into a recessed plate on the frog face. This example uses a rod attached to the back of the frog instead of the earlier example's thumb lever. As the lever or rod is moved from side to side the plate moves correspondingly up and down on an eccentric shaft which then adjusts depth of cut.

Thumb lever close up

Thumb lever close up

This photo shows the production model with the original depth adjusting thumb lever.

Rod adjuster close up

Rod adjuster close up

Typically, on other models a thumb lever is found in place of the rod. A repair, replacement or by design is not known for sure but the concept seems a bit primitive by comparison. Perhaps an early design prototype, perhaps not.

S Bailey Tool Co No 14 with odd lever adjuster

S Bailey Tool Co No 14 with odd lever adjuster

You can see in this photo the rod which has either replaced the thumb lever, or perhaps was an earlier iteration of the concept previously unknown. (most likely the former but hopefully the latter). Other differences, such as the knurling on the cap screw and the finish on the beech tote and knob, make these two plane unique from each other. Bailey established several different price levels depending on accessories.

Bailey No 4 Type 3 c1872

Bailey No 4 Type 3 c1872

This another really nice example of the very short lived type 3 design. 140+ years haven't hampered its performance.

Bailey No 4 typ 3 c1972

Bailey No 4 typ 3 c1972

Stanley's idea was to use a single size frog for all size planes thereby minimizing the production of parts. Two small machine screws hold the smaller frog to a boss cast into the body of the plane. While the width of the casting and cutter assembly increases as the planes get larger, the frog, centered at the mouth, can remain the same size for all planes.

Bailey No 4 tp 3 c1872

Bailey No 4 tp 3 c1872

Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link and in this case the weak link, (literally) is the frog mounting boss. Stress during heavy planning or on very hard wood caused it to crack and break.

Bailey TC Defiance Smoother

Bailey TC Defiance Smoother

This post 1875 Bailey Tool Co. (Woonsocket) Defiance smoothing plane is the combination of three patents dated 1871, 73 and 75 assigned to J. R. Bailey, S. Bailey and D.F. Williams respectively. The company adopted the name "DEFIANCE" and used a trademark featuring a battleaxe which was patented c1875.

Bailey TC Defiance Lever cam c1875

Bailey TC Defiance Lever cam c1875

In this 1871 patent, the eccentrically shaped lever rotates to engage the cap and securely hold the blade and cap iron in place. As stated in PTAMPIA Vol I, Roger K. Smith describes this 1875 version" ...to be one of the finest planes ever produced in the United States. It is well designed, well balanced and when the lever is locked into position there is absolutely no chatter."

Stanley Victor c1936-42

Stanley Victor c1936-42

Capitalizing on (or some would say plagiarizing from) Leonard Bailey's early Victor planes, Stanley 'jazzed up" the look of their third line behind the Bedrock and Bailey. Victor planes used the same components with fewer adjusting characteristics and were meant for the occasional user. Victor planes were produced from about 1936 until about 1942. This particular example was obtained from a WWII vet who purchased it upon returning from the war c1946. Apparently there were still a few around.

Stanley Handyman H1204 c1957-73

Stanley Handyman H1204 c1957-73

The Handyman line of tools was another attempt by Stanley to capture the homeowner, perhaps with a little more grace and quality. The Handyman planes were sold during the 1950s up until about 1962.

Stanley Defiance c1930-1962

Stanley Defiance c1930-1962

Stanley Defiance No 1243

Stanley Defiance No 1243

The photo illustrates the single cast frog and body, much like the original designed Leonard Bailey TC Defiance. The frog yoke slides along a pin secured to the frog on each side. This allows some lateral movement without the standard lateral adjustment lever found on most bench planes.

Stanley Defiance 1243

Stanley Defiance 1243

Defiance No 1204 c1939-1953

Defiance No 1204 c1939-1953

Stanley, recognizing for entry level users or homeowners began early on to produce "second grade" products. In about 1939 Stanley introduced the Defiance line of planes in sizes 3, 4 and later a 5 size (1203, 1204, 1205). The line generally replaced the Foursquare tools that had been produced since the early 1920s but were even a step down from the Foursquare quality.

Defiance No 1213 1/2

Defiance No 1213 1/2

The depth/lateral adjuster on the 1213 1/2 consisted of a knob extending from the back of the frog and attached to the cutter via a bent flange which is screwed to the back of the cutter. The shaped screw on the knob bottom then engages the flange so turning the knob moves the blade fore and aft. Lateral movement is achieved by manually sliding the cutter left or right.

Stanley Defiance No 2113 1_2

Stanley Defiance No 2113 1_2

The Defiance 1213 1/2 is the most collectable of the Defiance line and was produced in about 1929-30. It differs from its brother Defiance planes in that it utilizes a "Gauge" style adjusting mechanism.

Stanley Four Square Household Jack

Stanley Four Square Household Jack

Four Square tools were introduced into the market during the 1920s as a second quality product and were intended to fill the "tool gap" for infrequent users or "Joe Homeowner". There was an entire line of Four Square tools including rulers, squares, chisels, screwdriver, pliers, even a vice. Stanley also marketed and sold an entire set of those most commonly needed which came with it's own storage shelf or wall mounted box.

Bailey's 3rd Victor patented design

Bailey's 3rd Victor patented design

This was the third patent attempt by Bailey before once again selling out to Stanley. Nearly identical to his earlier designs but with the eccentric lever attached to the perforated cutter with a pin. He ultimately moved to New York City and ended his relationship with Stanley.

Bailey Victor Loop adjuster

Bailey Victor Loop adjuster

This example is of Hawley's second design and incorporates a lever attached eccentrically to the adjusting knob and alternately to the cap iron screw. Turning the knob advances/retracts the attached cutter.

L. Bailey Tool Co Victor Loop Adjus

L. Bailey Tool Co Victor Loop Adjus

The first Victor planes featured a blade adjustment designed in 1875 by Charles Hawley, an employee of Leonard Bailey. Stanley challenged the design in patent court and prevailed.  Hawley revised his design, (of which this is an example)and was granted a patent in October 1875, only to be challenged and defeated again by Stanley.  In frustration, Leonard Bailey designed a third adjustment for his Victor planes which is they most common type with a series of holes placed center of the iron.

L. Bailey Tool Co trademark

L. Bailey Tool Co trademark

Bailey had quite the eye for aesthetics in recognizing and using contemporary Victorian design

L. Bailey Victor 3 size c1876

L. Bailey Victor 3 size c1876

Bailey's ingenious design incorporated a ratcheting wheel and cog to adjust the blade depth. Stanley sued for patent infringement over earlier designs and won. A devastating blow to Leonard and his company. This is the third and last design Bailey tried to patent.

Bailey Victor No 3 Smoother

Bailey Victor No 3 Smoother

Not only were Bailey's designs interesting to look at aesthetically, but very functional and precise and fun to use.

Liberty Bell No 135 type 1

Liberty Bell No 135 type 1

To commemorate the nation's centennial, Stanley began producing the Liberty Bell series of metal and wood bottom bench planes. This type 1 sports a fancy hold down nut on the cap, beaded front knob and the "Eagle" trademark on the front.

Liberty Bell No 105 c1910

Liberty Bell No 105 c1910

This No 105 Liberty Bell plane had a pressed steel body much like the later "S" or steel series of alleged unbreakable planes. Note the unique depth adjusting lever incorporated into the frog.

Early Victor No 20 circular plane

Early Victor No 20 circular plane

Leonard Bailey designed Victor No 20 Circular plane, missing the plated medallions on either end.

Early Victor No 20

Early Victor No 20

The Victor adjustment system was unique to that line produced by the BTC. Turning the wheel moved an attached offset lever up and down. The lever was attached to the perforated blade with a small pin inserted into the end. The turning action moved the blade up and down.

Stanley No 13 radius plane c1885

Stanley No 13 radius plane c1885

Another design for a radius or circular plane produced by Stanley. This example C1885 has the first design lateral lever.

Stanley No 13 Radius c1885

Stanley No 13 Radius c1885

Inserting a nail or other similar object through the loops on each end facilitated adjustment of the bottom to accommodate different degrees of arc.

Bailey No 5 tp 3

Bailey No 5 tp 3

1872-1873 Stanley experimented with a new design to allow a single size frog to be used on all size bench planes. The "one size fits all" theory was aimed at reducing costs and improving efficiency of production.

Bailey No 5 tp 3

Bailey No 5 tp 3

The main casting employed a center cross rib milled to accept a single size frog and used only the mid section of the cross rib. Any width plane could be accommodated simply by making the rib wider while the frog receiver remained the same size.

Bailey No 5 Tp 3

Bailey No 5 Tp 3

The frog was held in place with two mounting screws drilled into the casting

Bailey No 5 tp 3

Bailey No 5 tp 3

As the photo illustrates the cross rib was relatively thin and fragile. Excessive pressure on the casting caused the rib to break rendering the plane useless. The design was abandoned after 2 years.

No 40 and one half Scrub plane

No 40 and one half Scrub plane

This is an unused example of a Sweetheart era No 40 1/2 Scrub plane with the tote sticker fully preserved.

No 40 and one half scrub plane

No 40 and one half scrub plane

Stanley Scrub planes came in two sizes, the no 40 and the larger No 40 1/2. The cutting end of the iron is "U" shaped and is designed to quickly remove large amounts of wood leaving behind a very uneven surface.

No 20 Circular or Compass plane

No 20 Circular or Compass plane

Stanley produced a number of circular or compass planes with flexible bottoms. By turning the knob on top, the bottom could be flexed to the desired radius for planing convex or concave surfaces.

The Aluminum Triplets

The Aluminum Triplets

Between 1925 and 1935 Stanley innovation came up with the unusual idea of making planes out of aluminum. Ah, no rust! Sadly, they did discolor and corrode and left ugly black marks on the work piece.

The Aumuminum Triplets

The Aumuminum Triplets

Conceptually, not completely insane as the theory was that these would be lighter and thereby easier to work with and the aluminum easier to maintain. Apparently they sell better today than they did in 1930 during the Great Depression.

Bailey No 3 type2

Bailey No 3 type2

This is what this beautiful antique looked like when it arrived, with black overpainted tote and knob. Not sure why anyone would do that to this gorgeous wood.

Type 2 No 3 tote

Type 2 No 3 tote

The black overpaint was carefully removed revealing the exquisite grain and color of the hidden rosewood

Bailey No 3 type 2 c 1969

Bailey No 3 type 2 c 1969

The great experiment paid off and now the beautiful rosewood is once again as it was intended, apparently with the original finish intact.

No 113 Compass Plane

No 113 Compass Plane

Stanley produce many styles of compass or radius (also called circular) planes which, with a flexible sole, are used for smoothing curved surfaces.

No 113 Circular Plane c 1877

No 113 Circular Plane c 1877

The sole flexes to accommodate a convex or concave surface by turning the knob atop the front section. Depth is regulated by the solid knob on the right side.

IMG_4333

IMG_4333

This example is an early type 1 with no number in the casting, solid depth adjusting wheel and the plates securing the adjusting rods to the sole are "peaked" or point toward the center of the plane.

Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 4 c1875

Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 4 c1875

BTC produced several models in the Defiance line primarily focusing around the depth of cut adjusting mechanism. This No 4 is very similar to the No 14 in appearance but differences in the depth adjusting and lever cap appointments made them distinct.

Bailey Tool Co Defiance

Bailey Tool Co Defiance

The Bailey Tool Company, also known as the Bailey Wringing Machine Company eventually sold off the plane making business to Stanley and Leonard Bailey was once again displaced.

Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 4

Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 4

The No 4 used an offset circular knob for adjusting depth. Other models used a lever adjuster both with the same internal mechanism to move the cutter.

Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 10

Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 10

Produced by the Bailey Tool Co of Woonsocket, RI c1878-1880 with compound lever depth adjusting mechanism. Some No 14 models did not have the "BAILEY TOOL CO" embossing on the hold down cap.

Defiance No 10 Bailey TC c1878-80

Defiance No 10 Bailey TC c1878-80

Along with the Victor line of planes, the production of the Defiance line was supervised by Leonard Bailey, no relation to Seldon Bailey, the company owner

Bailey TC Defiance No 10

Bailey TC Defiance No 10

Depth of cut is adjusted using a lever activated eccentric tab with a slot into which fits the cap screw. Moving the lever right to left increases the depth.

Defiance No 10 c1878-80

Defiance No 10 c1878-80

The fine depth adjusting is a bit "touchy" but works amazingly well once set.

I'm not an appraiser and I no longer provide estimates of value. So, if you have a plane you'd like to sell me please bring along a price with your offer. Thanks.

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