DB Rockwell, owner mark
Stanley Two-Tone Smoothing Plane
A later entry into Stanley's line of planes, the Two-Tone came in a Jack, Smoother and block plane size. They were first introduced in about 1939 for National Hardware Week and were in production until around the start of WWII. Cheaper, less expensive components made it competitive as a homeowner grade plane and priced accordingly.
Stanley Two-Tone Smoothing Plane
After December 7, 1941, the planes were dropped from the production lines but were reintroduced in a slightly different configuration in about 1949, again for National Hardware Week. This time production ran just 2 years with final runs being produced in 1950. The bright colors apparently weren't enough to keep folks interested in yet another hand tool that would soon become obsolete as power tools took their place on the workbench.
L Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Pla
One of Leonard Bailey's later iterations of his design, patented before he devolved a relationship with Stanley Rule and Level
L Bailey Vertical Post Smoothing Plane
No 10 1/4 Rabbet Plane
This plane is identical to the #10, except that it has a tilting tote and knob. This idea was first patented by a guy who added tilting wood to regular #10's because he found that your knuckles got all smashed when planing large rabbets.
The tote and knob each sit atop a rounded casting that holds a coarsely knurled metallic cylinder. The usual securing rods for the tote and knob are screwed into these knurled cylinders. (Patrick Leach; "Patrick's Blood and Gore"; The Superior Works)
S Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 14 with unusual lever adjuster
Seldon Bailey, owner of the Bailey Tool Company of Woosocket R.I. (no relation to Leonard) was a manufacturer of various items including washing machine ringers and hand planes. Leonard Bailey was employed there for a period after leaving the employ of Stanley, to oversee the production of his Victor and Defiance planes. After years of litigation brought against him by Stanley for patent infringement the Bailey Tool Company quit making planes and focused on washing machine ringers.
Defiance No 14 Bailey Tool Co c1878
This example is very similar to the other one found at the beginning of this gallery. Principally, the cap iron screw fits into a recessed plate on the frog face. This example uses a rod attached to the back of the frog instead of the earlier example's thumb lever. As the lever or rod is moved from side to side the plate moves correspondingly up and down on an eccentric shaft which then adjusts depth of cut.
Thumb lever close up
This photo shows the production model with the original depth adjusting thumb lever.
Rod adjuster close up
Typically, on other models a thumb lever is found in place of the rod. A repair, replacement or by design is not known for sure but the concept seems a bit primitive by comparison. Perhaps an early design prototype, perhaps not.
S Bailey Tool Co No 14 with odd lever adjuster
You can see in this photo the rod which has either replaced the thumb lever, or perhaps was an earlier iteration of the concept previously unknown. (most likely the former but hopefully the latter). Other differences, such as the knurling on the cap screw and the finish on the beech tote and knob, make these two plane unique from each other. Bailey established several different price levels depending on accessories.
Bailey No 4 Type 3 c1872
This another really nice example of the very short lived type 3 design. 140+ years haven't hampered its performance.
Bailey No 4 typ 3 c1972
Stanley's idea was to use a single size frog for all size planes thereby minimizing the production of parts. Two small machine screws hold the smaller frog to a boss cast into the body of the plane. While the width of the casting and cutter assembly increases as the planes get larger, the frog, centered at the mouth, can remain the same size for all planes.
Bailey No 4 tp 3 c1872
Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link and in this case the weak link, (literally) is the frog mounting boss. Stress during heavy planning or on very hard wood caused it to crack and break.
Bailey TC Defiance Smoother
This post 1875 Bailey Tool Co. (Woonsocket) Defiance smoothing plane is the combination of three patents dated 1871, 73 and 75 assigned to J. R. Bailey, S. Bailey and D.F. Williams respectively. The company adopted the name "DEFIANCE" and used a trademark featuring a battleaxe which was patented c1875.
Bailey TC Defiance Lever cam c1875
In this 1871 patent, the eccentrically shaped lever rotates to engage the cap and securely hold the blade and cap iron in place. As stated in PTAMPIA Vol I, Roger K. Smith describes this 1875 version" ...to be one of the finest planes ever produced in the United States. It is well designed, well balanced and when the lever is locked into position there is absolutely no chatter."
Stanley Victor c1936-42
Capitalizing on (or some would say plagiarizing from) Leonard Bailey's early Victor planes, Stanley 'jazzed up" the look of their third line behind the Bedrock and Bailey. Victor planes used the same components with fewer adjusting characteristics and were meant for the occasional user. Victor planes were produced from about 1936 until about 1942. This particular example was obtained from a WWII vet who purchased it upon returning from the war c1946. Apparently there were still a few around.
Stanley Handyman H1204 c1957-73
The Handyman line of tools was another attempt by Stanley to capture the homeowner, perhaps with a little more grace and quality. The Handyman planes were sold during the 1950s up until about 1962.
Stanley Defiance c1930-1962
Stanley Defiance No 1243
The photo illustrates the single cast frog and body, much like the original designed Leonard Bailey TC Defiance. The frog yoke slides along a pin secured to the frog on each side. This allows some lateral movement without the standard lateral adjustment lever found on most bench planes.
Stanley Defiance 1243
Defiance No 1204 c1939-1953
Stanley, recognizing for entry level users or homeowners began early on to produce "second grade" products. In about 1939 Stanley introduced the Defiance line of planes in sizes 3, 4 and later a 5 size (1203, 1204, 1205). The line generally replaced the Foursquare tools that had been produced since the early 1920s but were even a step down from the Foursquare quality.
Defiance No 1213 1/2
The depth/lateral adjuster on the 1213 1/2 consisted of a knob extending from the back of the frog and attached to the cutter via a bent flange which is screwed to the back of the cutter. The shaped screw on the knob bottom then engages the flange so turning the knob moves the blade fore and aft. Lateral movement is achieved by manually sliding the cutter left or right.
Stanley Defiance No 2113 1_2
The Defiance 1213 1/2 is the most collectable of the Defiance line and was produced in about 1929-30. It differs from its brother Defiance planes in that it utilizes a "Gauge" style adjusting mechanism.
Stanley Four Square Household Jack
Four Square tools were introduced into the market during the 1920s as a second quality product and were intended to fill the "tool gap" for infrequent users or "Joe Homeowner". There was an entire line of Four Square tools including rulers, squares, chisels, screwdriver, pliers, even a vice. Stanley also marketed and sold an entire set of those most commonly needed which came with it's own storage shelf or wall mounted box.
Bailey's 3rd Victor patented design
This was the third patent attempt by Bailey before once again selling out to Stanley. Nearly identical to his earlier designs but with the eccentric lever attached to the perforated cutter with a pin. He ultimately moved to New York City and ended his relationship with Stanley.
Bailey Victor Loop adjuster
This example is of Hawley's second design and incorporates a lever attached eccentrically to the adjusting knob and alternately to the cap iron screw. Turning the knob advances/retracts the attached cutter.
L. Bailey Tool Co Victor Loop Adjus
The first Victor planes featured a blade adjustment designed in 1875 by Charles Hawley, an employee of Leonard Bailey. Stanley challenged the design in patent court and prevailed. Hawley revised his design, (of which this is an example)and was granted a patent in October 1875, only to be challenged and defeated again by Stanley. In frustration, Leonard Bailey designed a third adjustment for his Victor planes which is they most common type with a series of holes placed center of the iron.
L. Bailey Tool Co trademark
Bailey had quite the eye for aesthetics in recognizing and using contemporary Victorian design
L. Bailey Victor 3 size c1876
Bailey's ingenious design incorporated a ratcheting wheel and cog to adjust the blade depth. Stanley sued for patent infringement over earlier designs and won. A devastating blow to Leonard and his company. This is the third and last design Bailey tried to patent.
Bailey Victor No 3 Smoother
Not only were Bailey's designs interesting to look at aesthetically, but very functional and precise and fun to use.
Liberty Bell No 135 type 1
To commemorate the nation's centennial, Stanley began producing the Liberty Bell series of metal and wood bottom bench planes. This type 1 sports a fancy hold down nut on the cap, beaded front knob and the "Eagle" trademark on the front.
Liberty Bell No 105 c1910
This No 105 Liberty Bell plane had a pressed steel body much like the later "S" or steel series of alleged unbreakable planes. Note the unique depth adjusting lever incorporated into the frog.
Early Victor No 20 circular plane
Leonard Bailey designed Victor No 20 Circular plane, missing the plated medallions on either end.
Early Victor No 20
The Victor adjustment system was unique to that line produced by the BTC. Turning the wheel moved an attached offset lever up and down. The lever was attached to the perforated blade with a small pin inserted into the end. The turning action moved the blade up and down.
Bailey No 5 tp 3
As the photo illustrates the cross rib was relatively thin and fragile. Excessive pressure on the casting caused the rib to break rendering the plane useless. The design was abandoned after 2 years.
No 40 and one half Scrub plane
This is an unused example of a Sweetheart era No 40 1/2 Scrub plane with the tote sticker fully preserved.
No 40 and one half scrub plane
Stanley Scrub planes came in two sizes, the no 40 and the larger No 40 1/2. The cutting end of the iron is "U" shaped and is designed to quickly remove large amounts of wood leaving behind a very uneven surface.
No 20 Circular or Compass plane
Stanley produced a number of circular or compass planes with flexible bottoms. By turning the knob on top, the bottom could be flexed to the desired radius for planing convex or concave surfaces.
The Aluminum Triplets
Between 1925 and 1935 Stanley innovation came up with the unusual idea of making planes out of aluminum. Ah, no rust! Sadly, they did discolor and corrode and left ugly black marks on the work piece.
The Aumuminum Triplets
Conceptually, not completely insane as the theory was that these would be lighter and thereby easier to work with and the aluminum easier to maintain. Apparently they sell better today than they did in 1930 during the Great Depression.
Bailey No 3 type2
This is what this beautiful antique looked like when it arrived, with black overpainted tote and knob. Not sure why anyone would do that to this gorgeous wood.
Type 2 No 3 tote
The black overpaint was carefully removed revealing the exquisite grain and color of the hidden rosewood
Bailey No 3 type 2 c 1969
The great experiment paid off and now the beautiful rosewood is once again as it was intended, apparently with the original finish intact.
No 113 Compass Plane
Stanley produce many styles of compass or radius (also called circular) planes which, with a flexible sole, are used for smoothing curved surfaces.
No 113 Circular Plane c 1877
The sole flexes to accommodate a convex or concave surface by turning the knob atop the front section. Depth is regulated by the solid knob on the right side.
This example is an early type 1 with no number in the casting, solid depth adjusting wheel and the plates securing the adjusting rods to the sole are "peaked" or point toward the center of the plane.
Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 4 c1875
BTC produced several models in the Defiance line primarily focusing around the depth of cut adjusting mechanism. This No 4 is very similar to the No 14 in appearance but differences in the depth adjusting and lever cap appointments made them distinct.
Bailey Tool Co Defiance
The Bailey Tool Company, also known as the Bailey Wringing Machine Company eventually sold off the plane making business to Stanley and Leonard Bailey was once again displaced.
Bailey Tool Co Defiance No 4
The No 4 used an offset circular knob for adjusting depth. Other models used a lever adjuster both with the same internal mechanism to move the cutter.